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The Enneagram Institute
Administrator

USA
388 Posts

Posted - 02 Aug 2005 :  11:59:33 AM  Show Profile  Visit The Enneagram Institute's Homepage
The “great, big news” of this CyberGram [our word for an email to everyone on our voluntary email list](which we can finally announce publicly after a year of research) is that the Enneagram system itself has come though the first hurdle of validation studies with flying colors! While it will be at least two more years of research before all of the major aspects of the system have been scientifically validated, the first efforts in this direction have been extremely successful, as the independent research shows. While the research by SHL (the world's largest occupational testing organization, with 250 psychologists on staff in 30 countries) was based on the Riso-Hudson interpretation of the system, this is good news for everyone involved with the Enneagram.

For years, the main objection that all Enneagram enthusiasts, authors, and teachers have heard is that "The Enneagram is great, but where's the research?" Now, this question seems to be able to be put to rest. We can tell everyone interested in the system that the Enneagram can no longer be dismissed as an interesting but unproven “New Age” theory. Therapists, educators, business coaches, human resource professionals, and others can use the Riso-Hudson Enneagram with confidence that there is solid scientific backing for doing so.

This is our first big public announcement of this news. For more information, see the Press Releases and Research Report on the Articles & Interviews page at http://www.enneagraminstitute.com/articles.asp

–Don Riso and Russ Hudson
The Enneagram Institute

Stormy
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16546 Posts

Posted - 02 Aug 2005 :  12:31:18 PM  Show Profile  Visit Stormy's Homepage
Great news, and a very informative report!
-

"No one's ever been there, but we all know the way..."
- Stormy [6w5]
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Cytokine
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12017 Posts

Posted - 02 Aug 2005 :  12:44:24 PM  Show Profile  Visit Cytokine's Homepage
Great news, thanks.
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Cytokine
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12017 Posts

Posted - 02 Aug 2005 :  12:45:34 PM  Show Profile  Visit Cytokine's Homepage
Reply to ...

I'll save some of it here because I don't have the Acrobat Reader at home.

Average Big 5 and Great 8 profiles

OPQ scales can be aggregated into the Big 5 Personality factors or the Great Eight Competency Factors using our current equations. Average Big 5 or Great 8 Profiles for the 9 Enneagram types then can be computed. We computed average Big 5 profiles for the 9 types using a set of equations developed for the OPQ Construct Validity research. The equations include main scales identified for each of the Big 5 factors with double weights and some additional scales with single weights.

Average Z scores on the Big 5 personality factors (Table 15)



Diagram of average Big 5 profiles (Figure 3)





Ethan Levin

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Hansie
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2885 Posts

Posted - 02 Aug 2005 :  12:46:30 PM  Show Profile  Visit Hansie's Homepage
This is off topic.. but Ethan, does your pic show the Maison a Verre in Paris?

And we should consider every day lost on which we have not danced at least once. And we should call every truth false which was not accompanied by at least one laugh. - Mr. Nietzsche
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The Enneagram Institute
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USA
388 Posts

Posted - 04 Aug 2005 :  11:26:15 AM  Show Profile  Visit The Enneagram Institute's Homepage
SHL Research Aims (Background)

For research to begin, there needed to be a "gold standard" for the selection of participants so that all those who took the validated SHL test, the OPQ32, had correctly found their Enneagram personality type. To this end, all participants taking the OPQ32 were self-typed and/or typed by Don Riso and Russ Hudson; in addition, they have taken one or more Enneagram courses with Riso and Hudson, they have taken the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (RHETI, Version 2.5), and they have also read one or more of the five Riso-Hudson Enneagram books. Riso and Hudson screened participants with the above criteria and further asked that only those who were 99% sure of their type participate, which participants agreed to do.

First, SHL researchers (Bartram and Brown) investigated if people who identified as each Enneagram type demonstrated a similar pattern of the OPQ32 sets of traits. In other words, was there a clear and consistently different pattern of the 32 traits of the OPQ32 for each of the nine Enneagram types? For everyone who said that they were a type One, for example, did their scores on the 32 OPQ traits produce a similar pattern? Were the patterns for each type statistically similar to each other? The research showed that the nine types of the Enneagram are internally consistent (in the Riso-Hudson model), with a high degree of statistical probability.

Second, was there a significant statistical difference between types? In other words, were the nine types discrete and show distinct, statistically valid differences from each other? For example, were Enneagram type Ones clearly different from each of the other eight Enneagram types or was there some conceptual "overlap" or other distortions among the nine Enneagram types? The research showed that the nine types are clear and distinct, with a high degree of statistical probability.

Third, did the nine Enneagram types respond to the 32 traits of the OPQ in a statistically meaningful way according to what was predicted by Riso & Hudson for each of the 32 traits? For example, Riso and Hudson predicted that "conscientiousness" would be a high-scoring trait for Enneagram type Ones and that type Ones would also score low on a trait such as "adaptability," and so forth. Riso and Hudson predicted which of the 32 traits of the OPQ32 would be highest and lowest scoring for each Enneagram type, and these predictions were borne out by the research with a high degree of statistical evidence.

For all three major areas (above), the data was highly statistically significant, more than warranting further research into the Enneagram as a valid personality typology. The results of this research also warrant further investigation for further validation into the various elements of the Enneagram system, based on the Riso-Hudson model.

---The Enneagram Institute
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Damian
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131 Posts

Posted - 04 Aug 2005 :  6:27:40 PM  Show Profile  Visit Damian's Homepage
Does it seem strange to anyone that 8s scored the highest on extraversion? I would have expected that to be 7s, or maybe 3s, but most likely 7s.

Damian 5w4 self-pres/sexual/social ENTp
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Bertha Rogers
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222 Posts

Posted - 05 Aug 2005 :  12:32:31 AM  Show Profile  Visit Bertha Rogers's Homepage
Why is this important? What's the real issue here, because it isn't obvious to me- credibility or validation/acceptance? Just curious.

sx 4w5 or sp 5w4 intp
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Stormy
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16546 Posts

Posted - 05 Aug 2005 :  05:39:04 AM  Show Profile  Visit Stormy's Homepage
quote:
Originally posted by Damian

Does it seem strange to anyone that 8s scored the highest on extraversion? I would have expected that to be 7s, or maybe 3s, but most likely 7s.


E8s also scored highest on Emotional Stability...strange.

"No one's ever been there, but we all know the way..."
- Stormy [6w5]
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Will
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897 Posts

Posted - 05 Aug 2005 :  10:25:34 AM  Show Profile  Visit Will's Homepage
quote:
Originally posted by Bertha Rogers

Why is this important? What's the real issue here, because it isn't obvious to me- credibility or validation/acceptance? Just curious.

sx 4w5 or sp 5w4 intp



The first test that are done to all pseudosience is to try to destroy it. Give all the chances to the side of pseudoscience and proof that the result are wrong. The study fail to do it in this case. And the result are promising.

Geting money for other study is another goal.

Will 5w6 Sp/Sx/So

Edited by - Will on 05 Aug 2005 10:35:41 AM
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Boss
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1736 Posts

Posted - 07 Aug 2005 :  05:25:49 AM  Show Profile  Visit Boss's Homepage
quote:
Originally posted by Stormy

quote:
Originally posted by Damian

Does it seem strange to anyone that 8s scored the highest on extraversion? I would have expected that to be 7s, or maybe 3s, but most likely 7s.


E8s also scored highest on Emotional Stability...strange.



You have to check out the subscales of each factor in the Big Five... It makes sense that 8's score high on Extraversion because they are so assertive, active, etc. (Act first, think later...)

And it's normal that 8's score the highest on emotional stability. There are 6 subscales... 8's score real low on depression, anxiety, vulnerability, self-consciousness, etc. 6's probably score the highest.

ENTJ 8w9
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Boss
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1736 Posts

Posted - 08 Aug 2005 :  05:36:04 AM  Show Profile  Visit Boss's Homepage
Nobody said unhealthy 8's didn't exist.

The "Neuroticism" scale doesn't represent all levels of health.

A psychopath would score extremely low on neuroticism (never panics, no anxiety, no self-consciousness, etc.), yet we would hardly call him healthy.

ENTJ 8w9
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Eärindis14
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1625 Posts

Posted - 13 Aug 2005 :  04:09:33 AM  Show Profile  Visit Eärindis14's Homepage
quote:
Originally posted by The Enneagram Institute




Wooo-hooo!
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Cytokine
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12017 Posts

Posted - 13 Aug 2005 :  3:49:00 PM  Show Profile  Visit Cytokine's Homepage
Reply to ...

I remind you can do a free Big Five test here.



Ethan Levin



~ Enneagram 1w9, Oldham’s Conscientious. ~
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Crooner
Member

USA
6626 Posts

Posted - 15 Aug 2005 :  4:25:43 PM  Show Profile  Visit Crooner's Homepage
I’ll append a few comments to this thread with my personal take on Don’s and Russ’s discussion of The Fourth Way on the closing day of the 2005 IEA Conference. Originally, Dr. Bartram of SHL had intended to present his statistical findings at the conference, but ultimately was unable to attend.

SHL had previously investigated correlations of the OPQ32 traits with categories in other systems of personality typology (such as MBTI). No strong correlations were found until this recent comparison of EnneaTypes with the 32 OPQ categories. The degree of correlation was sufficient to turn the head of a Self-Pres 5w6 scientist like Dr. Bartram.

No doubt Dr. Bartram would agree with some of the criticisms of this study that were pointed out in another thread. But this was just a preliminary analysis. I would like to have seen a much larger sample size. I would also like to have seen a stratified sample that accurately reflected a proportional cross section of the target population – whatever we mean by “target population.”

I sense that, ultimately, “blocking variables” such as race and gender may prove to be relatively weak correlates. Men and women of different races/ethnicities may have more in common with others of their own EnneaType than with those of the same race/gender who are of a different EnneaType.

At any rate, getting the attention of respected scientists like Dr. Bartram may mark the beginning of the Enneagram gaining acceptance into the mainstream.

At the same time, the Enneagram getting accepted into the mainstream also represents the proverbial double-edged sword. This double-edge sword was, in my mind, one of the key themes in Don’s and Russ’s presentation on The Fourth Way.

Among those of us devoted to The Work and devoted to seeing the fruits of The Work benefit the world, it would water the seed of sorrow in our heart to see a “Church of the Enneagram.” It would bring sorrow to see another “-ism” in the world that further divides humanity into another “us” and “them.”

Another downside is that, as soon as the Enneagram becomes mainstream, degeneration or devolvement inevitably follows. Enneagram users will come up with commercial business applications, marriage counseling applications, etc., and forget that The Work is primarily a means for humanity to wake up. Anything other than doing The Work for the purpose of awakening is --as the Cajuns say -- “lagniappe.”

Ultimately, it’s not about my being Type X and that person being a Type Y, and that both of us are correctly typed. It’s just about showing up and being present. It’s about being present and wakeful and alive, witnessing/honoring/celebrating the presence, wakefulness, and aliveness in others… versus… sleepwalking through life, being annoyed, threatened, and defensive against the way others sleepwalk through their lives.

Looking around the world… in places like the Middle East, Bosnia, Rwanda, right here in the U.S., etc. … the question arises: What happens if humanity continues its sleepwalk versus waking up?

We’ve witnessed cases in which spiritual applications of the Enneagram have been taken to be “lagniappe.” No. Learning to live wakefully is the primary purpose. Everything else is lagniappe.

It’s not just Don and Russ… many others took this same hard line throughout the weekend: Helen Palmer, Sandra Maitri, Eli Jaxon-Bear, just to name a few.

Right after the discussion of The Fourth Way, everyone gathered at the closing ceremonies where two teachers from Italy guided us through a set of Gurdjieff movements. Think of the Gurdjieff movements as the proverbial walking-and-chewing-gum-at-the-same-time… but multiplied by a factor of ten in difficulty. We have to be present to do the movements. If we’re not present, we get lost. And it’s all about being present.


Crooner

Edited by - Crooner on 16 Aug 2005 3:56:23 PM
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The Dreamer
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USA
729 Posts

Posted - 15 Aug 2005 :  5:47:49 PM  Show Profile  Visit The Dreamer's Homepage
quote:
Originally posted by Crooner
No doubt Dr. Bartram would agree with some of the criticisms of this study that were pointed out in another thread.

Here is the other thread:
Enneagram: Objective Scientific Validation?



5w4 INTJ sx/sp
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Crooner
Member

USA
6626 Posts

Posted - 16 Aug 2005 :  11:14:32 AM  Show Profile  Visit Crooner's Homepage
quote:
Originally posted by Grahame, Faculty Trainee
Thank you for bringing these tid-bits from the IEA conferance to the DB Crooner. As one who was not able to attend, I am grateful to hear of the overall reactions and insights from the Enneagram Community.


You’re welcome, Grahame. I’m sorry we didn’t get to meet in person.
I thought I saw your name listed as a speaker at the International Event.
Another time perhaps.

Best,
Crooner
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Crooner
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USA
6626 Posts

Posted - 16 Aug 2005 :  1:00:10 PM  Show Profile  Visit Crooner's Homepage
Your words do not ring true with me, Art.

Don & Russ do indeed establish a relationship with those of us attending the workshops. I did initially regard it as a teacher/student relationship. The teacher/student thing inevitably dissipates by the end of the seminar. The nature of our relationship and the nature of Don’s and Russ’s intent were very clearly stated at the conclusion of one of my workshops.

Don explicitly stated that the intent was for all of us to gather as friends. Don and Russ have actually coined the expression “Essence Friend” – and that’s what we are to one another.

At the 2005 IEA Conference, I had a chance to see Helen Palmer in person for the first time. Her presentation was also excellent. I was extremely impressed! Helen Palmer is a Six and she comes straight from the Head. She is so clear and concise that, I as a Five, regard her discourse as something akin to a direct download via Vulcan mind-meld.

Don & Russ come from the Heart. Maybe it’s because Don is a Four and Russ has a strong Four wing. I daresay that all of us in the Professional Training Program connect with Don & Russ, heart-to-heart. It would indeed take a heart hopelessly jaded by cynicism to find oneself unmoved.

Don, Russ, and Helen all take the hard line that I mentioned in another thread. There is no compromise. The Work is about awakening; everything else is lagniappe.

Helen’s philosophy is in some ways reminiscent of Theravadan Buddhism, where aspirants eventually become “solitary realizers” of Essence. With Don & Russ, there is more of a Mahayana-flavored emphasis on compassion and service to humanity.

Those who do The Work and reach Health Level 1, dedicate their subsequent efforts to the betterment of the planet. As I stated in another thread, Don & Russ made a distinction between self-realization and self-actualization. With Helen, the emphasis is on self-realization. With Don & Russ, the emphasis is on self-realization followed by self-actualization, where Essence is free to express the Holy Virtues through the individual whose intelligence centers have been purified.

On the last day of the conference, there was a chance to get another exquisite download from Helen via Vulcan mind-meld. But as I had not spent any time with Don & Russ all weekend, I decided to attend the R&H presentation, prior to the closing ceremonies.

Don’s and Russ’s presentation on The Fourth Way was not a download to the Head via mind-meld. It was more of a symphony. And for me it was reminiscent of the Star Trek episode where Spock’s father (Sarek) began weeping at a symphony.

We started by going into meditative silence. After reaching a place of relaxation, I searched my heart. I felt only peace and spaciousness in my heart. The first thought that came to my mind is that I am still a fixated Schizoid Five. I search my heart and I find nothing.

I suppose that there are many in the world with a troubled heart, who would envy my state of peacefulness. But I was cognizant that a properly functioning heart is one that is impressionable and responsive. Finding nothing… nada… zilch… just peaceful stillness in the space of the heart, I am conscious and self-conscious that I seem to be emotionally flat-lining.

Am I peaceful because I am in some way “healthy”? Or am I just another Schizoid Five with a heart coated with Novocaine? There is no deviation from zero. I can’t even find enough movement from the emotional baseline of zero to feel disappointment with myself.

I flat-lined for 30 full minutes into Don’s and Russ’s presentation. And then they sucker-punched me with their talk of the state of the world and the importance of awakening… our own awakening and everyone else’s awakening.

I feel a lump in my throat. I feel a stab in my heart. The tenderness is excruciating. Looks like my heart works after all. As much as I respect Ms. Palmer’s work, I don’t think that I could have gotten this experience elsewhere.


Crooner
INTJ Sexual Five
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Hompo
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3195 Posts

Posted - 23 Aug 2005 :  11:50:19 PM  Show Profile  Visit Hompo's Homepage
"On the basis of knowing someone's OPQ32 profile, the individual's Ennneagram type could be predicted with an accuracy of around 75% (chance level of prediction would be 11%). Many of the individuals who were not correctly classified in terms of the closest predicted type were found to have their actual type as the next closest predicted type."

This does not validate the enneagram theory. It just means that the OPQ32 profiles and enneagram types measure dominant traits. If the dominant theme in a person's OPQ32 profile was to 'have a good time' 'be independent' 'fun' 'live for the moment', chances are the person tested as the enthusiast type 7. But verifying that a person's dominant trait is continuous throughout different 'occupational' systems doesn't validate any of the enneagram logic.

The enneagram falls under the philosophy of psychology, not psychology itself. The system's biggest claim is logical consistency. The standard in a social science is to form conclusions based on the evidence, not look for evidence that validates the conclusion, especially when two businesses are involved, and both could stand to gain.

Edited by - Hompo on 23 Aug 2005 11:53:14 PM
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RJ145
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13 Posts

Posted - 30 Aug 2005 :  5:21:25 PM  Show Profile  Visit RJ145's Homepage
Replying to an older post by Crooner here.


"...Another downside is that, as soon as the Enneagram becomes mainstream, degeneration or devolvement inevitably follows. Anything other than doing The Work for the purpose of awakening is --as the Cajuns say -- “lagniappe.” ..."

There are some who feel that the use of the enneagram in several contemporary traditions, including the Gurdjieffian, is already a degeneration. And that people cannot wake themselves without outside help of someone of greater capacity.

Regarding the movements:
"...two teachers from Italy guided us through a set of Gurdjieff movements. Think of the Gurdjieff movements as the proverbial walking-and-chewing-gum-at-the-same-time… but multiplied by a factor of ten in difficulty. We have to be present to do the movements. If we’re not present, we get lost. And it’s all about being present. "

I see this differently. Movement, like anything, once learned can be very mechanical without any awareness needed. I don't care what kind of movement it is. The problem with people who take workshops in G. movements or shamanic passes and such is that very few are trained in dance. Therefor, much of their difficulty lies in they're not having this kind of skill. Trained dancers have a much shorter learning span and getting beyond any "pat-head-rub-stomach" impasses.


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Crooner
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USA
6626 Posts

Posted - 31 Aug 2005 :  1:54:53 PM  Show Profile  Visit Crooner's Homepage
quote:
Originally posted by RJ145
There are some who feel that the use of the enneagram in several contemporary traditions, including the Gurdjieffian, is already a degeneration.


There are also people who feel that Tibetan Buddhism has strayed far from the Buddha's original teachings and therefore represent the most "degenerated" form of the Buddha's teachings. This view is both understandable and in some ways justifiable.

The Buddha taught only a science of how the mind works and how to awaken the mind. The Buddha never meant to start a formal religion. Yet, Tibetan Buddhism is indeed a religion and is also filled with deities that some devotees worship. Some may ask: "How did the Buddha's teachings degenerate to this point?"

Others counter that Tibetan meditation techniques offer the most effective methods for awakening the mind -- a refinement over the original techniques. Hence, this is advancement rather than degeneration. And they too have a view that is justifiable.

So… advancement, degeneration, or merely a different format? It depends on one's perspective and on one's ultimate purpose.


quote:

Movement, like anything, once learned can be very mechanical without any awareness needed. I don't care what kind of movement it is. The problem with people who take workshops in G. movements or shamanic passes and such is that very few are trained in dance. Therefor, much of their difficulty lies in they're not having this kind of skill. Trained dancers have a much shorter learning span and getting beyond any "pat-head-rub-stomach" impasses.


Then dancers may be at a disadvantage if the movements become second-nature too quickly. Those with the least experience and the least talent in dancing may derive the most benefit.

The point is to try something so challenging that we must collect our mind and focus all of our attention on the present moment. This facilitates neuroplasticity. This makes our rigid structures more pliant so that new neural connections can form. This sets the stage for us to break out of the rigid walls of our box.


Crooner
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Cory2
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USA
50 Posts

Posted - 02 Sep 2005 :  7:32:08 PM  Show Profile  Visit Cory2's Homepage
I just took a Big 5 test at outofservice.com

I scored 80% on Openess, 8% on Conscientious, 5% on Extraversion, 44% on Agreeableness, and 84% on Neuroticism. I am a 5 however the agreeableness difference is huge. I am in the middle yet 5 scores the lowest on agreeableness. My test results closely match 4 however....how strange. Also 5's are more conscientious but I thought 5's weren't exactly that. It seems like 5's seem very INTJish according to the correlation results.

Eights would seem to be more calm instead of nervous. Eights get things done. They don't lose their cool when the situation gets hot.

I'm surprised Nines aren't more open! They score the lowest. I'm also surprised at how calm Sevens are....I always thought they were one of the more emotional types but I could be wrong.

-Cory

Did you know the government is a conspiracy of superwealthy elites intent on dominating everything around them? Did you know we are running out of energy (fossil fuels) at an alarming rate? Did you know events in the world point to a World War III in the near future? Don't worry about such stuff...it's trivial in the long run.
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Cory2
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USA
50 Posts

Posted - 02 Sep 2005 :  8:02:20 PM  Show Profile  Visit Cory2's Homepage
Big Five and Enneagram and Myers-Brigg types:
*Note T/F on MB is roughly a cross between Nervousness vs Calmness and Agreeableness vs Non-Agreeableness. Low Nervous and Low Agreeable is a definite T while High Nervous and High Agreeable is a definite F.

Nine: Strangely not the most calm. Eight is! And why is extraversion so low? Only 9w1s take the test or what? Very low openess, almost like cutting themselves off from the world. Pretty agreeable, low conscientious. Myers-Brigg correlation: ISFP.

One: I didnt think Ones would be as Nervous, Introverted, and Agreeable. I always thought they were calm, extraverted, and [blocked due to guideline #4 violation]y. ;) No wait, that is a total Type Eight! ISFJ.

Two: High openess. And very emotionally stable! Never thought that before! ENFx.

Three: ENTJ. Sounds pretty much like Three.

Four: INFP. But Agreeableness factor doesnt sound like the "Idealists" in MB literature. Fours are also not the MOST emotionally unstable either.

Five: INTx. I didnt expect Fives to be so...unagreeable? I mean, I know they aren't Two-like or anything, but I consider myself a Five and I'm midway on the Agreeable scale not at the very bottom. My personality extremes are Very High Openess and Very high Emotional Unstability with Very Low Conscientious and Very Low Extraversion. Agreeableness is dead center. Or maybe I'm not a 5.... ;)

Six: VERY emotionally unstable and....why is Conscientious sooooo low? I thought the hallmark of a Six was hard work and such? Hmmm. Six would seem to be ESFx....well definitely a Sensor.

Seven: Sevens are emotionally stable??? More than Nines???? Definitely an ENTP! High extraversion, High iNtuition, tendency towards Thinking, high Perceiving. Maybe ENFP. ENxP = 7, while ESxP more likely 6w7.

Eight: Extreme ENTJ correlation. Why is Openess so high? And Emotional Stability DOES seem too high.

Conclusion: While the results of the correlation seem to fit enneagram descriptions, there is too much of an iNtuitive bias. Only 3 of 9 types correlate to Sensing, yet Sensing is in 60-70% of the population. Perhaps we can say these represent the "archetypal" or "extreme" examples of types. An ESTJ could be an 8 for example, but unlikely an ISFP.
5 of 9 types have Negative Agreeableness. 5 of 9 have Positive Extraversion. 5 of 9 have Positive Conscientious. 5 of 9 have Positive Stability.

This lends support to my idea that it's mostly iNtuitives who do personality typing. I would imagine that while 1, 6, and 9 are the most "sensing" of the enneagram, other types can be sensors as well, especially 2, 3, and 8.
-Cory

Did you know the government is a conspiracy of superwealthy elites intent on dominating everything around them? Did you know we are running out of energy (fossil fuels) at an alarming rate? Did you know events in the world point to a World War III in the near future? Don't worry about such stuff...it's trivial in the long run.

Edited by - Cory2 on 02 Sep 2005 8:05:25 PM
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dnimon
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Australia
6516 Posts

Posted - 12 Jun 2006 :  06:40:11 AM  Show Profile  Visit dnimon's Homepage
this was a comparitive study yes? to see if the rh divisions corresponded with divisions made by the opq32 yes?

Am l right that the conclusion was that the etyping system is more or less up there with the top five personality typing systems in use today?

regards Keith

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dnimon
Member

Australia
6516 Posts

Posted - 12 Jun 2006 :  06:50:21 AM  Show Profile  Visit dnimon's Homepage
hmmm the hype about this release certainly doesnt match the reality.

There is not a shred of evidence connecting this typing system to the enneagram. The typing system may associate popular tendencies with type, and do a good job of it but the symbol is completely dispensible.


Good to see that the system designers had a good grasp of which different characteristics or tendencies defined more or less, people with different natures. I'm glad a good deal about various personality indicators and typing systems is included in university psychology.


sigh
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dnimon
Member

Australia
6516 Posts

Posted - 13 Jun 2006 :  10:09:06 AM  Show Profile  Visit dnimon's Homepage
hompo....... ah , l have company
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